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Training - ISoP Symposium & Training

ISoP Mid-Year Symposium
Leiden, Netherlands
1-2 June 2023

In collaboration with Lareb

Pharmacovigilance: where science meets clinical practice


ISoP Mid-Year Symposium 2023

In pharmacovigilance, various scientific disciplines such as epidemiology, (clinical) pharmacology, and medical science are necessary to monitor the safe use of drugs. This ISoP midyear symposium aims to showcase how the synergy between these disciplines can improve the quality and impact of our work. Epidemiological approaches may help us in the identification of potential safety signals, but the clinical interpretation of what happened combined with the correct epidemiological context is paramount. Whether we rely on data from spontaneous reporting systems, observational data, or medical files, a clear understanding of the clinical context and its implications from the perspective of patients and healthcare professionals form the basis of the detection of safety signals.

This symposium offers you the possibility to increase your knowledge, exchange information, and share experiences with other participants and speakers, which will enable you to get some new ideas on how to improve your work. Experts in the field of pharmacovigilance, epidemiology, clinical pharmacology, and medical sciences will discuss relevant topics about the added value of intensive collaboration between the disciplines. We focus on the nature of the data, as well as leveraging the methods and tools used, both with respect to signal detection and implementation of our findings in practice.

On the first day, topics related to signal detection will be addressed, including the quality and utility of the available clinical information in the data source, causality assessment, and the use of new data sources and methods to detect signals. On the second day, we will focus on the best ways of implementing information about the safety of drugs in clinical practice.

This symposium is aimed at pharmacovigilance professionals working in an industry, regulatory, or university setting as well as persons working in clinical or epidemiological settings with a keen interest in pharmacovigilance.

The ISoP mid-year meeting (in person) will be hosted by the Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre Lareb on 1-2 June 2023 in Leiden, the Netherlands.


The sessions will include the following topics:

Day 1 - Thursday 1 June 2023

  1. How can Pharmacovigilance, Epidemiology and Clinical Pharmacology collaborate to decrease harm of medicines?
  2. Do we need to re-think the concept of causality?
  3. Using information from other sources
  4. Innovative methods in Pharmacovigilance

Day 2 - Friday 2 June 2023

  1. Implementing pharmacovigilance in clinical practice
  2. The role of patients
  3. What do stakeholders need from pharmacovigilance?
  4. Science and practice, joining forces


The preliminary programme is available, click below.

Speakers and Chairpersons

Andrew Bate

Andrew is VP & Head of Safety Innovation & Analytics at GSK and leads the development of next generation Safety capability as a member of the Global Safety Leadership team. Previously Andrew was in the Global Epidemiology Leadership team at Pfizer and prior to that led the Research function at the Uppsala Monitoring Centre. 
Andrew has contributed to many international initiatives and partnerships including membership of the FDA Science Board Subcommittee on Pharmacovigilance, CIOMS VIII on signal detection of adverse effects of medicinal products and Transcelerate Pharmacovigilance Steering Committee where he is sponsor of the Intelligent Automation work stream. He is a member of CIOMS WG on AI and the DSRU International Working Group on New Developments in PharmacovigilanceHe has served on both the Executive Committee of ISoP and the Board of ISPE.

Andrew holds a Masters degree in Chemistry from Oxford, and a PhD in Clinical Pharmacology on the use of machine learning in pharmacovigilance from Umea University, Sweden. He was a Visiting Professor in Information Systems and Computing, at Brunel University and an Adjunct Associate Professor in Clinical Pharmacology at NYU Grossman School of Medicine. He is Honorary Associate Professor of Epidemiology at London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Andrew has over 100 publications related to signal detection, safety surveillance and Real World Evidence and his book “Evidence-Based Pharmacovigilance: Clinical and Quantitative Aspects” was published in 2018.

Rosa Castro

Dr Rosa Castro is the Senior Policy Manager for Healthcare Delivery and EPHA Networks’ Coordinator. Among other activities, she represents EPHA in the Patients’ and Consumers Working Party at the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and on the European Health Emergency Preparedness and Response Authority (HERA) Civil Society Advisory Forum.

She has a PhD in European Law and Economics, and an MA in Bioethics and Science Policy, wrote a book and articles on patents and health, was a postdoctoral Fellow at the European University Institute, and at Duke University, USA, and lectured on intellectual property and health law. Before joining EPHA in 2021, she also worked in Brussels as Senior Scientific Policy Officer at the Federation of European Academies of Medicine (FEAM) and as Senior Policy Advisor at a public policy consultancy.

Rebecca Chandler

Rebecca is a physician, educated and trained in internal medicine and infectious diseases in the USA. She discovered pharmacovigilance when she accepted a job at the Swedish Medical Products Agency in 2008 as a clinical safety assessor, reviewing both pre- and post-marketing safety data for a number of different types of medicinal products, including vaccines. Her passion for vaccine safety emerged with the narcolepsy/Pandemrix signal during the H1N1 influenza pandemic.

She subsequently moved to the Uppsala Monitoring Centre where she was engaged in the development of new methods using spontaneous reports and building pharmacovigilance capacity throughout the world. As the vaccine expert for the UMC, she participated in many global vaccine safety groups, such as the CIOMS Working Group for Vaccine Safety and meetings of the Global Vaccine Safety Initiative.

She currently works for the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) as Clinical Development Vaccine Safety Lead.  In that role she is project leader for the partnership between CEPI and the Brighton Collaboration of the Task Force for Global Health, SPEAC or Safety Platform for Emergency vaccines.  She is eager to increase awareness and uptake of Brighton AESI definitions and tools within pharmacovigilance.

Jean-Luc Faillie

Jean-Luc Faillie is a French physician specialized in public health and clinical pharmacology. He completed a university thesis in pharmaco-epidemiology at the University of Toulouse in 2014. He is a professor of medical pharmacology at the Faculty of Medicine of Montpellier, and, since 2018, he coordinates the Department of Medical Pharmacology and Toxicology at the University Hospital of Montpellier. He is the head of the Regional Pharmacovigilance Center of the Occitanie-Est region. His research interests include pharmacovigilance and pharmaco-epidemiology, particularly in the area of diabetes drugs.

Helga Gardarsdottir

Dr Helga Gardarsdottir is an associate professor at the Division of Pharmacoepidemiology & Clinical Pharmacology (Utrecht University, NL) and one of the principal investigators at the Division. Her primary research interests include the application and development of innovative approaches to generate and analyse real world data on safety and effectiveness of medicines to inform regulatory and clinical decision making. Special research interest includes assessing impact of drug regulation on safe and effective use of medicines in populations. Dr Gardarsdottir was trained as a pharmacist at Uppsala University in Sweden and worked for two years at the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) in The Hague following her graduation.

She obtained her PhD in pharmacoepidemiology from Utrecht University in 2009 and worked until 2017 as a researcher at the department of Clinical Pharmacy at the University Medical Center Utrecht. She has led and participated in several international multi-country research projects including the IMI-PROTECT project and the IMI Trials@home project. She is an elected member of the ENCePP (European Network of Centres for Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacovigilance) steering group, co-led the Real-World Evidence Task Force of the International Society of Pharmacoepidemiology (2019-2022) and is an associate editor of the journal ‘Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety’. She is a (co-)author of over 90 scientific publications in peer reviewed journals.

Henk-Jan Guchelaar

Henk-Jan Guchelaar PharmD PhD studied Pharmacy at the Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (RuG) and specialized as a hospital pharmacist and clinical pharmacologist. Since 2003, he is employed as a clinical pharmacist and clinical pharmacologist and professor of clinical pharmacy and chair of the department of Clinical Pharmacy & Toxicology at Leiden University Medical Center.

Since October 2008, he is also appointed professor of Clinical Pharmacy at the Faculty of Science, Leiden Academic Center for Drug Research, University Leiden and chair of the Leiden University focus area ‘Translational Drug Discovery and Development’.

Pharmaceutical patientcare in oncology is his main area of clinical interest. He is program leader of the research program ‘Personalised Therapeutics’ investigating interindividual variability of drug response with an emphasis on pharmacogenomics. He is (co-)author of more than 600 (Web of Science indexed) articles (Pubmed: 420) in international peer reviewed scientific journals.

Guchelaar is coordinator of the EU funded Horizon 2020 project Ubiquitous Pharmacogenomics ( aimed at implementing pre-emptive pharmacogenomic testing in the EU.

From 2010-2016 he was a member of the national Central Committee on Research Involving Human Subjects, from 2003-2017, he was vice-chair of the Dutch Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Biopharmacy, and since 2016 he is member of the Dutch Medicines Evaluation Board. Since 2017, he is member of Council for Medical Sciences of the Royal Dutch Academy of Science and since 2020 member of the Academia Europea. Henk-Jan is founder of the new Master of Pharmacy, Leiden University Medical Center, University of Leiden.

Linda Härmark

Linda Härmark, PhD, PharmD, epidemiologist, MBA, has more than 15 years experience in the field of pharmacovigilance and currently holds the position of deputy director of the Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre Lareb. She is/has been the Lareb lead participant in international projects such as IMI WEB-RADR and Conception project and the EDCTP PAVIA project. Her main research area is patient involvement in pharmacovigilance and the use of web-based intensive monitoring to gather information about ADRs. She has published more than 40 peer-reviewed papers in the field of pharmacovigilance.

Kaisa Immonen

Kaisa Immonen joined the Stakeholders and Public engagement team of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) in 2023. She supports the Agency’s interactions with patients, consumers and healthcare professionals and their organisations.

She has extensive experience of EU health policy and patient involvement. From 2010 until 2023 she was Director of Policy at the European Patients’ Forum and in that capacity co-chaired the EMA Patients and Consumers Working Party in 2016-2022. She also contributed to the OECD’s work on quality and safety of healthcare, the OECD PaRIS patient surveys, work of the WHO European regional office on people-centred health systems, as well as numerous European-level projects, working groups and networks on health policy.

Kaisa holds a Master’s in Health Policy, Management and Innovation from Maastricht University and a Master’s in International Relations from the University of Canterbury.

Vijay Kara

Vijay Kara is a Director of Safety Innovation and Analytics group within GSK’s Global Safety organisation. He is an experienced pharmacovigilance expert with over 15 years of experience in the field.

Through his career, Vijay has held several positions in multiple pharmaceutical companies, where he has gained extensive knowledge and expertise in various aspects of pharmacovigilance including signal detection and management, risk management, supporting filings for new products/ indications, licence renewals and safety governance.

His most recent co-authored publication entitled “Individual Case Safety Report Replication: An Analysis of Case Reporting Transmission Networks” published in Jan 2023, is the first-ever quantification of replication, helping to shine a light on current challenges in pharmacovigilance.

Maarten Keulemans

Maarten Keulemans (Rotterdam, 1968) is science editor for De Volkskrant, leading newspaper in the Netherlands. Before, het worked, among others, for New Scientist (Dutch version), Scientific American and the public broadcasting companies NOS and VPRO.

In 2022, he was awarded the title ‘Journalist of the Year’ by the Dutch Journalist’s Association (NVJ) for his coverage of the Covid crisis. His article series ‘Keulemans in Quarantine’ was shortlisted for several awards and prizes, among other two ‘Tegel’ awards.

Keulemans lives in Leiden with his family.

François Montastruc

Department of Clinical and Medical Pharmacology and Regional Pharmacovigilance Centre
Faculty of Medicine and Toulouse University Hospital, France

François Montastruc is a medical doctor and clinical pharmacologist who has been working at the Toulouse Regional Pharmacovigilance Centre since 2014. He got his medical degree in Public Health with complementary specialization in Clinical Pharmacology. In 2017, he obtained a PhD degree in Pharmacovigilance/pharmacoepidemiology at the University of Bordeaux, France. During one year (2018), he did a post-doctoral fellowship in the department of Clinical Epidemiology (pharmacoepidemiology), at McGill University, Montreal, Canada. Since September 2021, he is an Associate Professor at the department of Clinical and Medical Pharmacology of the Toulouse University. 

Its medical activity is organized around pharmacovigilance and clinical pharmacology. In 2015, he created a medical consultation dedicated to drug-induced diseases and pharmacovigilance. He also does clinical psychopharmacology consultations with the psychiatrists of his hospital. 

Dr. Montastruc’s research is in the area of pharmacovigilance and pharmacoepidemiology which involves the signal detection and studying the risks of medications in the population at large and in the real world setting of clinical practice. Research topics focus in particular on the use and risks of psychotropic drugs.  He teaches medical pharmacology and drug-related harm at the University of Toulouse.

He works as an expert member of pharmacovigilance for the French drug agency (ANSM). Since March 2020, he has been a member of the COVID-19 drug monitoring committee for the French Drug Agency (ANSM).

Elena Rocca

Elena works as Associate Professor in Pharmacy at the Faculty of Health Sciences, at Oslo Metropolitan University. Her research specialises in issues at the interface between scientific evidence, practice, policy and philosophy. She has a multi-disciplinary background that includes Pharmacy (MSc), Molecular Medicine (PhD) and Philosophy/Ethics of Science (post-doctoral experience and collaborative research). She is particularly interested in responsible science-based decision-making with focus on risk and safety of medicines, both from a practical, methodological and philosophical perspective. As part of this she works on expert disagreement, and the influence of philosophical basic assumptions in evidence production and evaluation. She is also interested in educating young practitioners and researchers to interdisciplinarity and to introduce patient-centeredness in pharmacy education.

I have been the PI of the project ‘Causation, Probability and Complexity in Pharmacovigilance‘ (2018-2021,CauseHealth Risk and Safety), financed by the WHO-collaborating centre Uppsala Monitoring Centre for global drug safety (Pharmacovigilance).

Sara Hedfors Vidlin

Sara is a data scientist with a MSc degree from Uppsala University. She has worked with pharmacovigilance data for the past eight years at Uppsala Monitoring Centre. She has been involved in international projects such as IMI WEB-RADR and the ongoing IMI EHDEN, where she contributes to the Evidence Workflow Development work package and the work on RWD utilisation in PV.

Francesco Salvo

Francesco Salvo is Full Professor of Pharmacology at the Medicine School of the University of Bordeaux, director of the Bordeaux Regional Pharmacovigilance Centre, and Deputy chief of the Public Health Department of the Bordeaux University Hospital.
It’s been around 20 years he’s working in drug safety, first at the Sicilian centre of Pharmacovigilance in Messina, Italy, then for Italian network of regional PV centres and for the signal detection group of the Italian Medicine Agency (AIFA).

In 2008 he moved to Bordeaux and was involved in pharmacoepidemiology research projects funded by European Commission.

From 2014 to 2020, he assessed safety of clinical trial sponsored by the Bordeaux University Hospital, and he was involved in real-life safety studies conducted by the French platform “Drugs-Safe”, supported by the French Medicine Agency (ANSM).

Since 2017, he is the coordinator of the European Programme of Pharmacovigilance and Pharmacoepidemiology (Eu2P).

Marco Tuccori

Marco Tuccori was born in Lucca (Italy) in 1976. In 2001, he graduated with Honors at the School of Pharmacy of the University of Pisa. From 2002 to 2005, he attended the Post Graduate School of Pharmacology at the University of Pisa. He achieved the PhD in Pharmacology and Medical Physiology at the University of Pisa in 2010 with a project of research on the risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients receiving rituximab. In August 2009 he started to work as Pharmacist Head at the Unit of Clinical Pharmacology at the University Hospital of Pisa. Since March 2012 he has been employed as Pharmacovigilance Manager at the Unit of Adverse Drug Reactions Monitoring of the University Hospital of Pisa.

In 2015 he attended a post-doc fellowship at the Centre for Clinical Epidemiology, Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University (Montreal, Canada). He is currently one of the coordinators of the Tuscan Regional Centre of Pharmacovigilance and collaborates with the Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco (AIFA) as member of the Working Group for Signal Detection Analysis on Drugs and Vaccines. He is free-of-charge professor of Pharmacovigilance and Evidence Based Medicine at the department of Pharmacy of the University of Pisa. He is currently in charge of several courses of Pharmacology, Pharmacovigilance and Pharmacoepidemiology at the post-graduate school (specialization) of Pharmacology, Gastroeneterology, Otolaryngology and Traumatology at the University of Pisa.

He was a member of the advisory board of the International society of Pharmacovigilance (ISoP) from 2012 to 2019. Since 2022 he is co-chair of the Scientific Board of the ISoP. He is the author of about 110 articles in peer reviewed scientific journals.

Lembit Rägo

Lembit Rägo (MD, PhD) was Professor of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology at Tartu University from 1983-1999. He was the first Director-General of the Estonian regulator, State Agency of Medicines, during 1991-1999. In December 1999 he joined the WHO Headquarters in Geneva as Coordinator of the Quality Assurance and Safety of Medicines (QSM) team.

In September 2013 he was appointed as Head of the newly formed WHO unit for Regulation of Medicines and Other Health Technologies, which combined all regulatory activities for medicines, vaccines and diagnostics. During 2000-2016 he served as a WHO observer to ICH Steering Committee and as a Board Member of the Uppsala Monitoring Centre (UMC). Since 2016 he is the Secretary-General of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS). In 2018-2019 he was a member of U.S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Committee on Mutual Recognition Agreements in the Regulation of Medicines.

Corina van den Hurk

Researcher Post-Doc at the Netherlands Comprehensive Cancer Organisation (IKNL)

Van den Hurk dedicated her career to adverse events of cancer treatments and supportive care to manage toxicities. At IKNL, she is currently conducting randomized trials and observational studies on monitoring patient-reported symptoms, using real world data collection in a sustainable infrastructure.

Van den Hurk is board member of the Prospective Renal Cell Cancer (PRO-RCC) Cohort with the TWIC design in which clinical data are collected in the Netherlands Cancer Registry and patient-reported outcomes in PROFILES registry. She is as well project member of the European Health Outcomes Observatories (EU H2O) lung cancer group in which core outcomes sets on clinical and patient-reported data are developed and implemented internationally.

Van den Hurk is co-chair of the Multinational Association of Supportive Cancer in Cancer (MASCC) OncoDermatology Study Group for which she supervises several international research projects on management of adverse events. At MASCC she is as well member of the membership committee and representative at the European Cancer Organisation. Besides, she is founder of the Dutch Association of Supportive Cancer in Cancer (DASCC) and member of the Dutch Epidemiology Society (NvE), and the Dutch Society for Psycho-social Oncology (NVPO).

Eugène van Puijenbroek

Eugène van Puijenbroek is a medical doctor and clinical pharmacologist who has been working at the Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre Lareb since 1994. In 2001 he obtained a PhD degree at the Department of Pharmacotherapy and Pharmacoepidemiology at the Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Utrecht, the Netherlands. Since April 2014 he is professor of pharmacovigilance at the Faculty of Science and Engineering, Department of PharmacoTherapy, -Epidemiology and -Economics of the University of Groningen, the Netherlands. He obtained a vast experience analysing signals in the spontaneous reporting system of the Netherlands and published in national as well as international journals. Next to his work in pharmacovigilance he has been working as a general practitioner from 1991 till 2006.

His current field of attention is the development of signal detection methodologies, especially the integration of the statistical approach combined with the use of clinical information. He was a member of the Executive Board of the International Society of Pharmacovigilance from 2006 till 2012 and is currently member of the ISoP Scientific Board. He was co-opted member of the Pharmacovigilance Working Party of the European Medicines Agency from 2010 till 2012. He is a member of the editorial board of Drug Safety since 2001 and Chair of the Signal Management Review Technical Working Group Methods Work stream of the European Medicines Agency.

Eugène van Puijenbroek has been coordinating national and international studies focussing on the safety of drugs. He coordinated postgraduate training courses on pharmacovigilance and supervises several PhD students working in the field of Drug Safety.

Teun van Gelder

Dr. Teun van Gelder is an internist-nephrologist / clinical pharmacologist. He was trained in internal medicine and nephrology at the Erasmus Medical Center, and completed his thesis in 1996 on the use of anti-interleukin-2 receptor monoclonal antibodies in solid organ transplantation. As a post-doctoral scientist, he worked in the Transplantation Immunology Laboratory of Dr. Randall E. Morris at Stanford University (1998-2000).

Between 2000 and 2019 he worked in the Departments of Hospital Pharmacy and Internal Medicine at the Erasmus Medical Center in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. In 2010, at Erasmus Medical Center he was appointed Professor in Clinical Pharmacology. His research at the Erasmus Medical Center was focused on clinical pharmacology and therapeutic drug monitoring, both within the solid organ transplant field, but also beyond (oncology, psychiatry, dermatology).

In December 2019 Teun van Gelder accepted a new position in Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC). He was appointed Professor in Drug Discovery & Development. LUMC, Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research (LACDR), Centre for Human Drug Research (CHDR) and Leiden Bio Science Park (LBSP) together have the expertise and facilities for the design, development and testing of new innovative drugs. This environment is unique in the Netherlands, and provides an excellent basis for drug discovery and drug development.

Rob van Marum

Rob van Marum is working as geriatrician in a large teaching hospital and holds a chair as professor of geriatric pharmacotherapy at Amsterdam UMC. Next to this, he is a member of the Dutch Medicines Evaluation Board.

In his research his focus is on medication safety for older persons.

Call for Abstracts

The deadline has now passed

Thank you for your contributions!

At the ISoP mid-year meeting we want to offer students and researchers the opportunity to present their research in the form of flash presentations (5 minutes).
Abstracts are invited for submission: the topics for the presentations can be broad but should consist of original research fitting to the theme of the conference Pharmacovigilance: where science meets practice. Please note that there will be no posters, only oral presentations.
Presenters of accepted abstracts are required to register for the conference and must pay the appropriate registration fee.

Please see formatting instructions and the submission form below.

Meeting venue

National Museum Boerhaave
10, Lange St. Agnietenstraat
2312 WC Leiden

Rijksmuseum Boerhaave is a museum of the history of science and medicine, ideally situated in the heart of Leiden, Netherlands.

Leiden Leiden


You may book your room at the following hotels:
Golden Tulip/Tulip Inn hotel (Rooms subject to availability).
This hotel is a 10-minute walk from the Boerhaave Museum.

Fletcher Wellness-hotel Leiden (Rooms subject to availability).
This hotel is a 15-minute walk from the Boerhaave Museum.


Leiden is a vibrant city with a rich cultural heritage, with 28 km of canals, many monuments, beautiful museums, and the oldest university in the Netherlands.
It is situated close to Amsterdam Schiphol Airport (20 minutes by direct train) as well as Amsterdam (35 minutes by direct train).
All information about Leiden and places to visit can be found at the official tourism bureau website HERE.

Invitation letter/visa

Please contact if you require an invitation letter for visa purposes. Please note this service does not imply any financial support and it is not an official invitation covering fees or/and other expenses.


Existing Members of ISoP

ISoP members receive a discounted fee when registering at this event.
Please login to your account and return to this page where you will be able to access the members only registration page by selecting ‘Register’ from one of the options below.

Option 1
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 Pharmaceutical industry
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All bank fees included.
Option 2
High Income Countries*
 Other public sector
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Option 3
Low Income Countries
 Pharmaceutical industry
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Option 4
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Not a Member of ISoP?

Non members of ISoP are welcome to register for this event which includes a 1 year complimentary membership to the Society.

Please choose the appropriate option below to pay online with your credit card.
If you have any questions or wish to pay via bank transfer, please contact ISoP Administration.

Option 1
High-Income Countries*
 Pharmaceutical industry
 Other private sector
 1 year ISoP membership
All bank fees included.
Option 2
High Income Countries*
 Other public sector
 1 year ISoP membership
All bank fees included.
Option 3
Low Income Countries
 Pharmaceutical industry
 Other private sector
 1 year ISoP membership
All bank fees included.
Option 4
Low Income Countries
 Other public sector
 1 year ISoP membership
All bank fees included.

(*) High-Income Countries include:
Hong Kong SAR China, Chinese Taipei, Macao SAR China, Singapore, Brunei, Korea, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, USA, Chile, Panama, Puerto Rico, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Israel, EU/AELE, Bahrain, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Oman, UAE.